Terrorist’s Creed

Fanatical Violence and the Human Need for Meaning


by Roger Griffin

Professor in Modern History, Oxford Brookes University

Griffin is interviewd by Wired:

How Studying Extremist Psychology Can Help Prevent Another Bombing


One prominent expert on extremism and radicalization thinks the crucial step for detecting and stopping the next would-be bomber is to bone up on psychology.

Not even the FBI ultimately suspected accused bombers Tamerlan and Dzhokhar Tsarnaev were about to plant deadly bombs that killed three and wounded about 180 last week. Extremist violence can be like that. “Because their outward behavior was so normal,” Roger Griffin, a professor of political science at Oxford-Brookes University tells Danger Room, “they weren’t picked up as a threat.”

Griffin would know. Having built a career studying far-right extremism, Griffin shifted to studying domestic radicalization — including advising the British Home Office — after the “7/7″ bombings in London by a group of domestic terrorists in July 2005. He believes violent extremism of any variety should be understood less as a political phenomenon than as a psychological state — particularly, as a form of destructive and self-destructive behavior that’s rooted in feeling disconnected from the modern world.

Read More Here

Rethinking What We Read in the Newspapers About Terrorism

From a chapter in Griffin's book, with the author's permission

At https://buy-essays-now.com/ all of the chapters are free for readers to look through.

The widespread misunderstandings of the metapolitical causes of terrorism, and the role that religion, particularly Islamism, may play in them has had important consequences for its coverage in the media.

The Washington Post of 27 January 2012 reported the case of Yonathan Melaku, a US citizen of Ethiopian ackground raised by Coptic Christian parents. The former Marine was arrested while on his way to desecrate the graves of US soldiers by scrawling ‘Arabic statements on them’ and leaving ‘handfuls of explosive material nearby as a message’.

23 Months earlier he had gone on:

...a mysterious shooting spree that targeted the Pentagon, the National Museum of the Marine Corps and two other military buildings in Northern Virginia. A video found after Melaku’s arrest showed him wearing a black mask and shooting a 9mm handgun out of his Acura’s passenger window as he drove along Interstate 95, shouting ‘Allahu Akbar!’

The article indicates that Melaku was a recent convert to Islam and had decided to carry out a series of attacks on buildings and ‘sacred sites’ of the US military, the synecdoche of the nation that Islamists see as the imperialist arch-enemy of their faith. Despite these clues, the article’s headline reads

‘Motive of Shooter who Targeted Military Sites is Unclear’.

The fact that over a decade after 9/11 a patently obvious Islamist message did not get through to the journalists of the Washington Post suggests continuing failure to appreciate the semiotic dimension of what took place that day in the capital of the US.

= = =

Roger Griffin. 2012.
Terrorist's creed:
fanatical violence and the human need for meaning
Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Copyright 2012, Palgrave Macmillan.


1 Forethoughts: The Liquid Fear of Terrorism 1

Apocalypse in the subway 1

The Titanic syndrome 4

Liquid meanings: The need for definition 9

The place of this book within terrorism studies 12

The terrorist’s creed 15

The book’s structure 17

2 Terrorism as Zealotry: Defending the Nomos 24

The human need for a ‘sacred canopy’ 24

Defending a beleaguered tradition: The Zealotic response 30

Zealotic terrorism in the ancient world: The Sicarii 34

The Assassins’ defence of their nomos 37

Chechen terrorists as modern Zealots 39

The Tamil Tigers’ defence of their sacred canopy 43

3 Modernist Terrorism: Creating the Nomos 47

The dynamics of cultural renewal 47

Modernism as a revolt against anomy 51

Terrorism as a form of programmatic modernism 54

The modernist dynamic in Russian nihilism 56

The active nihilism of God’s orphans 59

Fin-de-siècle anarchism and ‘modernism of the deed’ 63

4 The Metapolitics of Terrorism in Fiction 67

Fyodor Dostoevsky: The terrorist as ‘devil’ 67

Building towers and destroying towers 70

Joseph Conrad: The terrorist as ‘propagandist of the deed’ 74

André Malraux: The terrorist as existentialist 78

Tom Robbins: The terrorist as anarchic individualist 80

Sunjeev Sahota: The terrorist as Zealotic orphan 83

5 The Metapolitics of Terrorist Radicalization 88

Terrorist radicalization Stage One: Nomic crisis 88

Stage Two: Splitting and the Manichaean world-view 92

Heroic doubling 95

The Alice Syndrome 99

Stage Three: The bliss of completion 101

Two Hollywood takes on the metapolitics of radicalization 103

Terrorism’s pyrrhic victory 108

6 Modern Zealots of the Sacred Homeland 111

The modernization of Zealotry 111

Religious fundamentalism again 113

Chechen rebels and Tamil Tigers revisited 116

The Sikhs’ quest for Khalistan 121

Recovering the Promised Land of the Israelites 126

Inferences about Zealotic terrorism 132

7 Modernist Terrorism Red, Black, and White 137

The vitality of terrorism before 9/11 137

The radicalization of an ‘in-between generation’ 139

The post-nihilism of the Baader–Meinhof Gang 141

The holy warriors of the Kali Yuga 145

Timothy McVeigh strikes back against ZOG 149

The cleansing power of blood 156

8 The Hybrid Metapolitics of Religious Terrorism 158

The intricacies of ‘religious terrorism’ 158

Defining religious terrorism 160

The secular dimension of some ‘religious conflicts’ 161

The temporal immortality of ‘the inner thing’ 163

‘Cosmic truth’ in an ocean of anomy 166

From fantasy war to act of religious terrorism 170

9 Islamism’s Global War against Nomocide 173

The elusive nature of political Islam 173

Six Islamic reactions to the threat of nomocide 176

Maududi, Qutb, and the first wave of Islamism 180

The ‘second wave’: Statist Islamism 184

Renomizing the world through terror 186

Islamism as a ‘mazeway resynthesis’ 189

10 Afterthoughts on the Nature of Terrorism 195

Rethinking the dynamics of terrorism 195

Rethinking the role of the sacred in terrorism 198

Rethinking ‘religious’ and ‘secular’ terrorism 201

Rethinking what we read in the newspapers about terrorism 206

Rethinking terrorism’s impact on the social imaginary 212

Rethinking the de-radicalization of potential terrorists 217





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